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Inclusion of Minorities

Inclusion of Minorities measures levels of discrimination against vulnerable groups such as indigenous peoples, migrants, refugees, or lower caste groups. This measure focuses upon whether there is systemic bias among managers, administrators, and members of the community in the allocation of jobs, benefits, and other social and economic resources regarding particular social groups.

While there is not a large theoretical literature on the topic of ‘discrimination’ per se, there is a large empirical literature on specific categories of discrimination, for example where this is ethnically or racially motivated. In terms of its welfare benefits, the relationship between identity groups in a society has important consequences for the allocative efficiency of an economy, as norms of arbitrary discrimination lead to sub-optimal resource allocation by squandering human potential.

ISD measures the level of inclusion of minorities using indicators which are based on direct measurement of social institutions and their outcomes, and perception-based indicators, based on assessments by public opinion surveys, private agencies and non-governmental organizations, and proxy measures to measure the access to jobs and educational attainment.

Data Used

Indicator Source Countries
Level of perceived discrimination among blacks and mulattos, among all those in country self-identifying into these groups
Latinobarometer
17
Proportion of the public reporting that they are affected by discrimination due to skin colour or discrimination as immigrants
Latinobarometer
18
Percentage citing "discrimination due to skin colour" and "discrimination against immigrants" affects me
Afrobarometer
18
Proportion of population reporting that their economic situation is the ‘same’ as other ethnic groups in country
Afrobarometer
16
Proportion of population reporting that their political situation is the ‘same’ as other ethnic groups in country
Afrobarometer
4
Proportion of population reporting that their ethnic group is ‘never’ treated unfairly in country
Afrobarometer
16
Rating on level of uneven economic development along group lines
Fund for Peace
176
Level of ethnic tensions, International Country Risk Guide rating
International Country Risk Guide
140
Level of religious tensions, International Country Risk Guide rating
International Country Risk Guide
140
Proportion of the public who do not very much or not at all trust members of other religious groups
World Values Surveys
22
Proportion of the public who do not very much or not at all trust members of other nationalities
World Values Surveys
21
Proportion of the public citing “Being of the same social background” is very important or rather important for as successful marriage
World Values Surveys
22
Level of economic and political discrimination against minorities in country
Minorities at Risk
118
Proportion of the public who would reject members of another ethnic or caste group as neighbours
World Values Surveys
84
Proportion of the public who would reject immigrants or foreign workers as neighbours
World Values Surveys
84
Proportion of the public who would reject members of another religious group as neighbours
World Values Surveys
50
Proportion of the public who would reject other language group as neighbours
World Values Surveys
28
Proportion of the public who would reject Jews as neighbours
World Values Surveys
50
Proportion of the public who would “Prevent Labour Immigration”
World Values Surveys
50
Proportion of the public who are (strongly) against immigration (people of another race, from poorer countries)
European Social Survey
20
Proportion of the public who think “immigration is bad for economy”
European Social Survey
20
Proportion of the public who think “immigration is bad for cultural life
European Social Survey
20
Proportion of the public who think “immigration makes country worse place to live”.
European Social Survey
20
Educational Disparity Ethnic Groups
Various household surveys
75
Occupational Disparity Ethnic Groups
Various household surveys
58
OECD, Foreign/Native Labour Participation, across all educations
OECD Factbook
26

Level of perceived discrimination among blacks and mulattos, among all those in country self-identifying into these groups

Latinobarometer

17

Proportion of the public reporting that they are affected by discrimination due to skin colour or discrimination as immigrants

Latinobarometer

18

Percentage citing "discrimination due to skin colour" and "discrimination against immigrants" affects me

Afrobarometer

18

Proportion of population reporting that their economic situation is the ‘same’ as other ethnic groups in country

Afrobarometer

16

Proportion of population reporting that their political situation is the ‘same’ as other ethnic groups in country

Afrobarometer

4

Proportion of population reporting that their ethnic group is ‘never’ treated unfairly in country

Afrobarometer

16

Rating on level of uneven economic development along group lines

Fund for Peace

176

Level of ethnic tensions, International Country Risk Guide rating

International Country Risk Guide rating

140

Level of religious tensions, International Country Risk Guide rating

International Country Risk Guide

140

Proportion of the public who do not very much or not at all trust members of other religious groups

World Values Surveys

22

Proportion of the public who do not very much or not at all trust members of other nationalities

World Values Surveys

21

Proportion of the public citing “Being of the same social background” is very important or rather important for as successful marriage

World Values Surveys

22

Level of economic and political discrimination against minorities in country

Minorities at Risk

118

Proportion of the public who would reject members of another ethnic or caste group as neighbours

World Values Surveys

84

Proportion of the public who would reject immigrants or foreign workers as neighbours

World Values Surveys

84

Proportion of the public who would reject members of another religious group as neighbours

World Values Surveys

50

Proportion of the public who would reject other language group as neighbours

World Values Surveys

28

Proportion of the public who would reject Jews as neighbours

World Values Surveys

50

Proportion of the public who would “Prevent Labour Immigration”

World Values Surveys

50

Proportion of the public who are (strongly) against immigration (people of another race, from poorer countries)

European Social Survey

20

Proportion of the public who think “immigration is bad for economy”

European Social Survey

20

Proportion of the public who think “immigration is bad for cultural life”

European Social Survey

20

Proportion of the public who think “immigration makes country worse place to live”.

European Social Survey

20

Educational Disparity Ethnic Groups

Various household surveys

75

Occupational Disparity Ethnic Groups

Various household surveys

58

OECD, Foreign/Native Labour Participation, across all educations

OECD Factbook

26